PEACE TREATY BETWEEN ISRAEL
March 26, 1979
Sixteen months after Sadat's visit to Israel, the Israel-Egypt peace
treaty was signed in Washington. It contains nine articles, a military
annex, an annex dealing with the relation between the parties, agreed
minutes interpreting the main articles of the treaty, among them
Article 6, the withdrawal schedule, exchange of ambassadors, security
arrangements and the agreement relating to the autonomy talks. The
latter issue was contained in a letter addressed by President Sadat
and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter.
In a separate Israel-US Memorandum of Agreement, concluded on the same
day, the US spelled out its commitments to Israel in case the treaty
is violated, the role of the UN and the future supply of military and
economic aid to Israel.
The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the
State of Israel;
Convinced of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just,
comprehensive and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with
Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338;
Reaffirming their adherence to the "Framework for Peace in the Middle
East Agreed at Camp David," dated September 17, 1978;
Noting that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended to
constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but
also between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is
prepared to negotiate peace with it on this basis;
Desiring to bring to an end the state of war between them and to
establish a peace in which every state in the area can live in
Convinced that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and
Israel is an important step in the search for comprehensive peace in
the area and for the attainment of settlement of the Arab- Israeli
conflict in all its aspects;
Inviting the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace
process with Israel guided by and based on the principles of the
Desiring as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between
themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the
principles of international law governing international relations in
times of peace;
Agree to the following provisions in the free exercise of their
sovereignty, in order to implement the "Framework for the Conclusion
of a Peace Treaty Between Egypt and Israel";
1. The state of war between the Parties will be terminated and peace
will be established between them upon the exchange of instruments of
ratification of this Treaty.
2. Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from the
Sinai behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated
Palestine, as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I ), and Egypt
will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.
3. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in Annex I,
the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in
accordance with Article III (3).
The permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel in the recognized
international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory
of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to
the issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this
boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity of
the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.
1. The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter
of the United Nations and the principles of international law
governing relations among states in times of peace. In particular:
a. They recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty,
territorial integrity and political independence;
b. They recognize and will respect each other's right to live in peace
within their secure and recognized boundaries;
c. They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or
indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between
them by peaceful means.
2. Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of
belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not
committed from within its territory, or by any forces subject to its
control or by any other forces stationed on its territory , against
the population, citizens or property of the other Party. Each Party
also undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting,
assisting or participating in acts or threats of belligerency,
hostility, subversion or violence against the other Party, anywhere,
and undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to
3. The Parties agree that the normal relationship established between
them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic and cultural
relations, termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory
barriers to the free movement of people and goods, and will guarantee
the mutual enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The
process by which they undertake to achieve such a relationship
parallel to the implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is
set out in the annexed protocol (Annex III).
1. In order to provide maximum security for both Parties on the basis
of reciprocity, agreed security arrangements will be established
including limited force zones in Egyptian and Israeli territory, and
United Nations forces and observers, described in detail as to nature
and timing in Annex I, and other security arrangements the Parties may
2. The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations personnel in
areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to request
withdrawal of the United Nations personnel and that these personnel
will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the Security
Council of the United Nations, with the affirmative vote of the five
Permanent Members, unless the Parties otherwise agree.
3. A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the
implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.
4. The security arrangements provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of
this Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and
amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.
1. Ships of Israel, and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel,
shall enjoy the right of free passage through the Suez Canal and its
approaches through the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the
basis of the Constantinople Convention of 1888, applying to all
nations, Israeli nationals, vessels and cargoes, as well as persons,
vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall be
accorded non- discriminatory treatment in all matters connected with
usage of the canal.
2. The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba to
be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and
non-suspendable freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will
respect each other's right to navigation and overflight for access to
either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.
1. This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as
affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under
the Charter of the United Nations.
2. The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations
under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other
party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.
3. They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for the
application in their relations of the provisions of the multilateral
conventions to which they are parties, including the submission of
appropriate notification to the Secretary General of the United
Nations and other depositaries of such conventions.
4. The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict
with this Treaty.
5. Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the event
of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the present
Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this
Treaty will be binding and implemented.
1. Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this
Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
2. Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be
resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual
settlement of all financial claims.
1. This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of
2. This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of
3. All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be
regarded as an integral part hereof.
4. The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the
United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements
Concept of Withdrawal
1. Israel will complete withdrawal of all its armed forces and
civilians from the Sinai not later than three years from the date of
exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
2. To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the implementation of
phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military measures and
establishment of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter
referred to as "the Zones."
3. The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:
a. The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras
Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of
exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
b. The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind the international
boundary not later than three years from the date of exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
4. A Joint Commission will be formed immediately after the exchange of
instruments of ratification of this Treaty in order to supervise and
coordinate movements and schedules during the withdrawal, and to
adjust plans and timetables as necessary within the limits established
by paragraph 3, above. Details relating to the Joint Commission are
set out in Article IV of the attached Appendix. The Joint Commission
will be dissolved upon completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the
Determination of Final Lines and Zones
1. In order to provide maximum security for both Parties after the
final withdrawal, the lines and the Zones delineated on Map 1 are to
be established and organized as follows:
a. Zone A
1. Zone A is bounded on the east by line A (red line) and on the west
by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on
2. An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division and its
military installations, and field fortifications, will be in this
3. The main elements of that Division will consist of:
a. Three mechanized infantry brigades.
b. One armed brigade.
c. Seven field artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery
d. Seven anti-aircraft artillery battalions including individual
surface-to-air missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and
e. Up to 230 tanks.
f. Up to 480 armored personnel vehicles of all types.
g. Up to a total of twenty-two thousand personnel.
b. Zone B
1. Zone B is bounded by line B (green line) on the east and by line A
(red line) on the west, as shown on Map 1.
2. Egyptian border units of four battalions equipped with light
weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide security and supplement the
civil police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements in the
four Border Battalions will consist of up to a total of four thousand
3. Land based, short range, low power, coastal warning points of the
border patrol units may be established on the coast of this Zone.
4. There will be in Zone B field fortifications and military
installations for the four border battalions.
c. Zone C
1. Zone C is bounded by line B (green line) on the west and the
International Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on
2. Only United Nations forces and Egyptian civil police will be
stationed in Zone C.
3. The Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform
normal police functions within this Zone.
4. The United Nations Force will be deployed within Zone C and perform
its functions as defined in Article VI of this annex.
5. The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps located
within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will
establish its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:
a. In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 Km. of
the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary.
b. In the Sharm el Sheikh area.
d. Zone D
1. Zone D is bounded by line D (blue line) on the east and the
international boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1.
2. In this Zone there will be an Israeli limited force of four
infantry battalions, their military installations, and field
fortifications, and United Nations observers.
3. The Israeli forces in Zone D will not include tanks, artillery and
anti-aircraft missiles except individual surface-to-air missiles.
4. The main elements of the four Israeli infantry battalions will
consist of up to 180 armored personnel vehicles of all types and up to
a total of four thousand personnel.
2. Access across the international boundary shall only be permitted
through entry check points designated by each Party and under its
control. Such access shall be in accordance with laws and regulations
of each country.
3. Only those field fortifications, military installations, forces,
and weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in the
Aerial Military Regime
1. Flights of combat aircraft and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and
Israel shall take place only over Zones A and D, respectively.
2. Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be
stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.
3. Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and land in
Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone B. The
Egyptian border unit.,., may be equipped with unarmed helicopters to
perform their functions in Zone B.
4. The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police
helicopters to perform normal police functions in Zone C.
5. Only civilian airfields maybe built in the Zones.
6. Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those
military aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall
be allowed in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial
1. Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval vessels along the
coasts of Zones A and D, respectively.
2. Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may be stationed and
operate in the territorial waters of Zone B to assist the border units
in performing their functions in this Zone.
3. Egyptian civil police equipped with light boats, lightly armed,
shall perform normal police functions within the territorial waters of
4. Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as derogating from the
right of innocent passage of the naval vessels of either party.
5. Only civilian maritime ports and installations may be built in the
6. Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those
naval activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed
in the Zones and in their territorial waters.
Early Warning Systems
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early warning systems only
in Zones A and D respectively.
United Nations Operations
1. The Parties will request the United Nations to provide forces and
observers to supervise the implementation of this Annex and employ
their best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
2. With respect to these United Nations forces and observers, as
appropriate, the Parties agree to request the following arrangements:
a. Operation of check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation
posts along the international boundary and line B, and within Zone C.
b. Periodic verification of the implementation of the provisions of
this Annex will be carried out not less than twice a month unless
otherwise agreed by the Parties.
c. Additional verifications within 48 hours after the receipt of a
request from either Party.
d. Ensuring the freedom of navigation through the Strait of Tiran in
accordance with Article V of the Treaty of Peace.
3. The arrangements described in this article for each zone will be
implemented in ones A, B, and C by the United Nations Force and in
Zone D by the United Nations Observers.
4. United Nations verification teams shall be accompanied by liaison
officers of the respective Party.
5. The United Nations Force and observers will report their findings
to both Parties.
6. The United Nations Force and Observers operating in the Zones will
enjoy freedom of movement and other facilities necessary for the
performance of their tasks.
7. The United Nations Force and Observers are not empowered to
authorize the crossing of the international boundary.
8. The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United
Nations Force and Observers will be drawn. They "ill be drawn from
nations other than those which are permanent members of the United
Nations Security Council.
9. The Parties agree that the United Nations should make those command
arrangements that will best assure the effective implementation of its
1. Upon dissolution of the Joint Commission, a liaison system between
the Parties will be established. This liaison system is intended to
provide an effective method to assess progress in the implementation
of obligations under the present Annex and to resolve any problem that
may arise in the course of implementation, and refer other unresolved
matters to the higher military authorities of the two countries
respectively for consideration. It is also intended to prevent
situations resulting from errors or misinterpretation on the part of
2. An Egyptian liaison office will be established in the city of
El-Arish and an Israeli liaison office will be established in the city
of Beer-Sheba. Each office will be headed by an officer of the
respective country, and assisted by a number of officers.
3. A direct telephone link between the two offices will be set up and
also direct telephone lines with the United Nations command will be
maintained by both offices.
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party undertakes to preserve in good condition the War Memorials
erected in the memory of soldiers of the other Party, namely those
erected by Egypt in Israel, and shall permit access to such monuments.
The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians behind the
interim withdrawal line, and the conduct of the forces of the Parties
and the United Nations prior to the final withdrawal, will be governed
by the attached Appendix and Map 2.
Appendix to Annex I
Organization of Movements in the Sinai
Principles of Withdrawal
1. The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians from the Sinai
will be accomplished in two phases as described in Article I of Annex
I. The description and timing of the withdrawal are included in this
Appendix. The Joint Commission will develop and present to the Chief
Coordinator of the United Nations forces in the Middle East the
details of these phases not later than one month before the initiation
of each phase of withdrawal.
2. Both parties agree on the following principles for the sequences of
a. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX, paragraph 2, of this
Treaty, until Israeli armed forces complete withdrawal from the
current J and M Lines established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of
September 1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to
the interim withdrawal line, all military arrangements existing under
that Agreement will remain in effect, except those military
arrangements otherwise provided for in this Appendix.
b. As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United Nations forces will
immediately enter the evacuated areas to establish interim and
temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps 2 and 3, respectively, for the
purpose of maintaining a separation of forces. United Nations forces'
deployment will precede the movement of any other personnel into these
c. Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have
evacuated any area located in Zone A, units of Egyptian armed forces
shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this
d. Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have
evacuated any area located in Zones A or B, Egyptian border units
shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this
Appendix, and will function in accordance with the provisions of
Article II of Annex I.
e. Egyptian civil police will enter evacuated areas immediately after
the United Nations forces to perform normal police functions.
f. Egyptian naval units shall deploy in the Gulf of Suez in accordance
with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix.
g. Except those movements mentioned above, deployments of Egyptian
armed forces and the activities covered in Annex I will be offered in
the evacuated areas when Israeli armed forces have completed their
withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
Subphases of the Withdrawal to the Interim Withdrawal Line
1. The withdrawal to the interim withdrawal line will be accomplished
in subphases as described in this Article and as shown on Map 3. Each
subphase will be completed within the indicated number of months from
the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification of this
a. First subphase: within two months, Israeli armed forces will
withdraw from the area of El Arish, including the town of El Arish and
its airfield, shown as Area I on Map 3.
b. Second subphase: within three months, Israeli armed forces will
withdraw from the area between line M of the 1975 Agreement and line
A, shown as Area II on Map 3.
c. Third subphase: within five months, Israeli armed forces will
withdraw from the area east and south of Area II, shown as Area III on
d. Fourth subphase: within seven months, Israeli armed forces will
withdraw from the area of El Tor- Ras El Kenisa, shown as Area IV on
e. Fifth subphase: Within nine months, Israeli armed forces will
withdraw from the remaining areas west of the interim withdrawal line,
including the areas of Santa Katrina and the areas east of the Giddi
and Mitla passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing Israeli
withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
2. Egyptian forces will deploy in the areas evacuated by Israeli armed
forces as follows:
a. Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai in
accordance with the 1975 Agreement will deploy in the portions of Zone
A lying within Area I, until the completion of interim withdrawal.
Thereafter, Egyptian armed forces as described Article II of Annex I
will be deployed in Zone A up to the limits of the interim zone.
b. The Egyptian naval activity in accordance with Article IV of Annex
I will commence along the coasts of areas I, III and IV, upon
completion of the second, third, and fourth subphases, respectively.
c. Of the Egyptian border units described in Article II of Annex I,
upon completion of the first subphase one battalion will be deployed
in Area I. A second battalion will deployed in Area II upon completion
of the second subphase. A third battalion will deployed in Area Ill
upon completion of the third subphase. The second and third battalions
mentioned above may also be deployed in any of the subsequently
evacuated areas of the southern Sinai.
3. United Nations forces in Buffer Zone I of the 1976 Agreement will
redeploy enable the deployment of Egyptian forces described above upon
the completion of the subphase, but will otherwise continue to
function in accordance with the provisions of that Agreement in the
remainder of that zone until the completion of interim withdrawal, as
indicated in Article I of this Appendix.
4. Israeli convoys may use the roads south and east of the main road
junction east of El Arish to evacuate Israeli forces up to the
completion of interim withdrawal. These convoys will proceed in
daylight upon four hours notice to the Egyptian liaison group and
United Nations forces, will be escorted by United Nations forces, and
will be in accordance with schedules coordinated by the Joint
Commission. An Egyptian liaison officer will accompany convoys to
assure uninterrupted movement. The Joint Commission may approve other
arrangements for convoys.
United Nations Forces
1. The Parties shall request that United Nations forces be deployed as
necessary to perform the functions described in the Appendix up to the
time of completion of final Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the
Parties agree to the redeployment of the United Nations Emergency
2. United Nations forces will supervise the implementation of this
Appendix and will employ their best efforts to prevent any violation
of its terms.
3. When United Nations forces deploy in accordance with the provisions
of Article and II of this Appendix, they will perform the functions of
verification in limited force zones in accordance with Article VI of
Annex I, and will establish check points, reconnaissance patrols, and
observation posts in the temporary buffer zones described in Article
II above. Other functions of the United Nations forces which concern
the interim buffer zone are described in Article V of this Appendix.
Joint Commission and Liaison
1. The Joint Commission referred to in Article IV of this Treaty will
function from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of
this Treaty up to the date of completion of final Israeli withdrawal
from the Sinai.
2. The Joint Commission will be composed of representatives of each
Party headed by senior officers. This Commission shall invite a
representative of the United Nations when discussing subjects
concerning the United Nations, or when either Party requests United
Nations presence. Decisions of the Joint Commission will be reached by
agreement of Egypt and Israel.
3. The Joint Commission will supervise the implementation of the
arrangements described in Annex I and this Appendix. To this end, and
by agreement of both Parties, it will:
a. coordinate military movements described in this Appendix and
supervise their implementation;
b. address and seek to resolve any problem arising out of the
implementation of Annex I and this Appendix, and discuss any
violations reported by the United Nations Force and Observers and
refer to the Governments of Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems;
c. assist the United Nations Force and Observers in the execution of
their mandates, and deal with the timetables of the periodic
verification when referred to it by the Parties as provided for in
Annex I and this Appendix;
d. organize the demarcation of the international boundary and all
lines and zones described in Annex I and this Appendix;
e. supervise the handing over of the main installations in the Sinai
from Israel to Egypt;
f. agree on necessary arrangements for finding and returning missing
bodies of Egyptian and Israeli soldiers;
g. organize the setting up and operation of entry check points along
the El Arish-Ras Mohammed line in accordance with the provisions of
Article 4 of Annex III;
h. conduct its operations through the use of joint liaison teams
consisting of one Israeli representative and one Egyptian
representative, provided from a standing Liaison Group, which will
conduct activities as directed by the Joint Commission;
i. provide liaison and coordination to the United Nations command
implementing provisions of the Treaty, and, through the joint liaison
teams, maintain local coordination and cooperation with the United
Nations Force stationed in specific areas or United Nations Observers
monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed;
j. discuss any other matters which the Parties by agreement may place
4. Meetings of the Joint Commission shall be held at least once a
month. In the event that either Party of the Command of the United
Nations Force requests a specific meeting, it will be convened within
5. The Joint Committee will meet in the buffer zone until the
completion of the interim withdrawal and in El Arish and Beer-Sheba
alternately afterwards. The first meeting will be held not later than
two weeks after the entry into force of this Treaty.
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its Activities
1. An interim buffer zone, by which the United Nations Force will
effect a separation of Egyptian and Israeli elements, will be
established west of and adjacent to the interim withdrawal line as
shown on Map 2 after implementation of Israeli withdrawal and
deployment behind the interim withdrawal line. Egyptian civil police
equipped with light weapons will perform normal police functions
within this zone.
2. The United Nations Force will operate check points, reconnaissance
patrols, and observation posts within the interim buffer zone in order
to ensure compliance with the terms of this Article.
3. In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by both Parties and to
be coordinated by the Joint Commission, Israeli personnel will operate
military technical installations at four specific locations shown on
Map 2 and designated as T1 (map central coordinate 57163940), T2 (map
central coordinate 59351541), T3 (map central coordinate 5933-1527),
and T4 (map central coordinate 61130979) under the following
a. The technical installations shall be manned by technical and
administrative personnel equipped with small arms required for their
protection (revolvers, rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns,
hand grenades, and ammunition), as follows:
T1 - up to 150 personnel
T2 and T3 - up to 350 personnel
T4 - up to 200 personnel
b. Israeli personnel will not carry weapons outside the sites, except
officers who may carry personal weapons.
c. Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and Israel will enter and
conduct inspections within the perimeters of technical installations
in the buffer zone. The third party will conduct inspections in a
random manner at least once a month. The inspections will verify the
nature of the operation of the installations and the weapons and
personnel therein. The third party will immediately report to the
Parties any divergence from an installation's visual and electronic
surveillance or communications role.
d. Supply of the installations, visits for technical and
administrative purposes, and replacement of personnel and equipment
situated in the sites, may occur uninterruptedly from the United
Nations check points to the perimeter of the technical installations,
after checking and being escorted by only the United Nations forces.
e. Israel will be permitted to introduce into its technical
installations items required for the proper functioning of the
installations and personnel.
f. As determined by the Joint Commission, Israel will be permitted to:
1. Maintain in its installations fire-fighting and general maintenance
equipment as well as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile
engineering equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All
vehicles shall be unarmed.
2. Within the sites and in the buffer zone, maintain roads, water
lines, and communications cables which serve the site. At each of the
three installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this maintenance
may be performed with up to two unarmed wheeled vehicles and by up to
twelve unarmed personnel with only necessary equipment, including
heavy engineering equipment if needed. This maintenance may be
performed three times a week, except for special problems, and only
after giving the United Nations four hours notice. The teams will be
escorted by the United Nations.
a. Movement to and from the technical installations will take place
only during daylight hours. Access to, and exit from, the technical
installations shall be as follows:
1. T1: Through a United Nations check point, and via the road between
Abu Aweigila and the intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the
Gebel Libni road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2.
2. T2 and T3: through a United Nations checkpoint and via the road
constructed across the buffer zone to Gebel Katrina, as shown on Map
3. T2, T3, and T4: via helicopters flying within a corridor at the
times, and according to a flight profile, agreed to by the Joint
Commission. The helicopters will be checked by the United Nations
Force at landing sites outside the perimeter of the installations.
b. Israel will inform the United Nations Force at least one hour in
advance of each intended movement to and from the installations.
c. Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick and wounded and summon
medical experts and medical teams at any time after giving immediate
notice to the United Nations Force.
4. The details of the above principles and all other matters in this
Article requiring coordination by the Parties will be handled by the
5. These technical installations will be withdrawn when Israeli forces
withdraw from the interim withdrawal line, or at a time agreed by the
Disposition of Installations and Military Barriers
Disposition of installations and military barriers will be determined
by the Parties in accordance with the following guidelines:
1. Up to three weeks before Israeli withdrawal from any area, the
Joint Commission will arrange for Israeli and Egyptian liaison and
technical teams to conduct a joint inspection of all appropriate
installations to agree upon condition of structures and articles which
will be transferred to Egyptian control and to arrange for such
transfer. Israel will declare, at that time, its plans for disposition
of installations and articles within the installations.
2. Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all agreed infrastructures,
utilities, and installations intact, inter alia, airfields, roads,
pumping stations, and ports. Israel will present to Egypt the
information necessary for the maintenance and operation of the
facilities. Egyptian technical teams will be permitted to observe and
familiarize themselves with the operation of these facilities for a
period of up to two weeks prior to transfer.
3. When Israel relinquishes Israeli military water points near El
Arish and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams will assume control of
those installations and ancillary equipment in accordance with an
orderly transfer process arranged beforehand by the Joint Commission.
Egypt undertakes to continue to make available at all water supply
points the normal quantity of currently available water up to the time
Israel withdraws behind the international boundary, unless otherwise
agreed in the Joint Commission.
4. Israel will make its best effort to remove or destroy all military
barriers, including obstacles and minefields, in the areas and
adjacent waters from which it withdraws, according to the following
a. Military barriers will be cleared first from areas near
populations, roads and major installations and utilities.
b. For those obstacles and minefields which cannot be removed or
destroyed prior to Israeli withdrawal, Israel will provide detailed
maps to Egypt and the United Nations through the Joint Commission not
later than 15 days before entry of United Nations forces into the
c. Egyptian engineers will enter those areas after United Nations
forces enter to conduct barrier clearance operations in accordance
with Egyptian plans to be submitted prior to implementation.
1. Aerial surveillance activities during the withdrawal will be
carried out as follows:
a. Both Parties request the United States to continue airborne
surveillance flights in accordance with previous agreements until the
completion of final Israeli withdrawal.
b. Flight profiles will cover the Limited Forces Zones to monitor the
limitations on forces and armaments, and to determine that Israeli
armed forces have withdrawn from the areas described in Article II of
Annex I, Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that these
forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special inspection
flights may be flown at the request of either Party or of the United
c. Only the main elements in the military organizations of each Party,
as described in Annex I and in this Appendix, will be reported.
2. Both Parties request the United States operated Sinai Field Mission
to continue its operations in accordance with previous agreements
until completion of the Israeli withdrawal from the area east of the
Giddi and Mitla Passes. Thereafter, the Mission be terminated.
Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over evacuated
parts of the Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal as provided for in Article
I of this Treaty.
Map of Israel-Egypt International Boundary
Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties
Diplomatic and Consular Relations
The Parties agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and
to exchange ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
Economic and Trade Relations
1. The Parties agree to remove all discriminatory barriers to normal
economic relations and to terminate economic boycotts of each other
upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
2. As soon as possible, and not later than six months after the
completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties will enter
negotiations with a view to concluding an agreement on trade and
commerce for the purpose of promoting beneficial economic relations.
1. The Parties agree to establish normal cultural relations following
completion of the interim withdrawal.
2. They agree on the desirability of cultural exchanges in all fields,
and shall, as soon as possible and not later than six months after
completion of the interim withdrawal, enter into negotiations with a
view to concluding a cultural agreement for this purpose.
Freedom of Movement
1. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party will permit
the free movement of the nationals and vehicles of the other into and
within its territory according to the general rules applicable to
nationals and vehicles of other states. Neither Party will impose
discriminatory restrictions on the free movement of persons and
vehicles from its territory to the territory of the other.
2. Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious and historical
significance will be provided on a non- discriminatory basis.
Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly Relations
1. The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest in good neighbourly
relations and agree to consider means to promote such relations.
2. The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and
development in their region. Each agrees to consider proposals the
other may wish to make to this end.
3. The Parties shall seek to foster mutual understanding and tolerance
and will, accordingly, abstain from hostile propaganda against each
Transportation and Telecommunications
1. The Parties recognize as applicable to each other the rights,
privileges and obligations provided for by the aviation agreements to
which they are both party, particularly by the Convention on
International Civil Aviation, 1944 ("The Chicago Convention") and the
International Air Services Transit Agreement, 1944.
2. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any declaration of
national emergency by a party under Article 89 of the Chicago
Convention will not be applied to the other party on a discriminatory
3. Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by Israel near
El-Arish, Rafah, Ras El-Nagb and Sharm El- Sheikh shall be for
civilian purposes only, including possible commercial use by all
4. As soon as possible and not later than six months after the
completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties shall enter into
negotiations for the purpose of concluding a civil aviation agreement.
5. The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and railways between
their countries and will consider further road and rail links. The
Parties further agree that a highway will be constructed and
maintained between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed
free and peaceful passage of persons, vehicles and goods between Egypt
and Jordan, without prejudice to their sovereignty over that part of
the highway which falls within their respective territory.
6. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, normal postal,
telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable communications
and television relay services by cable, radio and satellite shall be
established between the two Parties in accordance with all relevant
international conventions and regulations.
7. Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party shall grant
normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other, as
well as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other.
Such access will be granted on the same conditions generally
applicable to vessels and cargoes of other nations. Article 5 of the
Treaty of Peace will be implemented upon the exchange of instruments
of ratification of the aforementioned treaty.
Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Parties affirm their commitment to respect and observe human
rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these
rights and freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of
Peace each Party recognizes the right of the vessels of the other
Party to innocent passage through its territorial sea in accordance
with the rules of international law.
Egypt's resumption of the exercise of full sovereignty over the Sinai
provided for in paragraph 2 of Article I shall occur with regard to
each area upon Israel's withdrawal from the area.
It is agreed between the parties that the review provided for in
Article IV (4) will be undertaken when requested by either party,
commencing within three months of such a request, but that any
amendment can be made only by mutual agreement of both parties.
The second sentence of paragraph 2 of Article V shall not be construed
as limiting the first sentence of that paragraph. The foregoing is not
to be construed as contravening the second sentence of paragraph 2 of
Article V, which reads as follows: "The Parties will respect each
other's right to navigation and overflight for access to either
country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba."
Article VI (2)
The provisions of Article VI shall not be construed in contradiction
to the provisions of the framework for peace in the Middle East agreed
at Camp David. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening
the provisions of Article VI (2) of the Treaty, which reads as
follows: "The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their
obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action of any other
Party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty."
Article VI (5)
It is agreed by the Parties that there is no assertion that this
Treaty prevails over other Treaties or agreements or that other
Treaties or agreements prevail over this Treaty. The foregoing is not
to be construed as contravening the provisions of Article VI (5) of
the Treaty, which reads as follows: "Subject to Article 103 of the
United Nations Charter, in the event of a conflict between the
obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their
other obligations, the obligation under this Treaty will be binding
Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as follows:
"The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations
forces and observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations
other than those which are permanent members of the United Nations
The Parties have agreed as follows:
"With respect to the provisions of paragraph 8, Article VI, of Annex
1, if no agreement is reached between the Parties, they will accept or
support a U.S. proposal concerning the composition of the United
Nations force and observers."
The Treaty of Peace and Annex III thereto provide for establishing
normal economic relations between the Parties. In accordance herewith,
it is agreed that such relations will include normal commercial sales
of oil by Egypt to Israel, and that Israel shall be fully entitled to
make bids for Egyptian-origin oil not needed for Egyptian domestic oil
consumption, and Egypt and its oil concessionaires will entertain bids
made by Israel, on the same basis and terms as apply to other bidders
for such oil.
For the Government
For the Government of the
Arab Republic of Egypt
President of the United States of America