US-Israel Strategic Cooperation
Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the United States
and the Government of Israel on Strategic Cooperation
a few weeks of discussions between working groups,
Israel's Defense Minister Sharon and the U.S. Defense
Secretary Weinberger signed on 30 November in Washington
a memorandum of understanding on strategic cooperation.
The main objective was to deter Soviet threats in the
Middle East. There would be joint military exercises,
land, sea and air; there would also be planning for the
establishment and maintenance of joint readiness
activities. Joint working teams will deal with specific
military issues. The Arab world and the Soviet Union
were highly critical of this agreement, which they felt
would impair America's ability to deal fairly with the
peace process in the Middle East.
memorandum of understanding reaffirms the common bonds
of friendship between the United States and Israel and
builds on the mutual security relationship that exists
between the two nations. The parties recognize the need
to enhance strategic cooperation to deter all threats
from the Soviet Union to the region. Noting the
longstanding and fruitful cooperation for mutual
security that has developed between the two countries,
the parties have decided to establish a framework for
continued consultation and cooperation to enhance their
national security by deterring such threats to the whole
parties have reached the following agreements in order
to achieve the above aims.
States-Israel strategic cooperation, as set forth in
this memorandum, is designed against the threat to peace
and security of the region caused by the Soviet Union or
Soviet-controlled forces from outside the region
introduced into the region. It has the following broad
enable the parties to act cooperatively and in a timely
manner to deal with the above-mentioned threat.
provide each other with military assistance for
operations of their forces in the area that may be
required to cope with this threat.
strategic cooperation between the parties is not
directed at any state or group of states within the
region. It is intended solely for defensive purposes
against the above-mentioned threat.
fields in which strategic cooperation will be carried
out to prevent the above-mentioned threat from
endangering the security of the region include:
cooperation between the parties, as may be agreed by the
military exercise, including naval and air exercises in
the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, as agreed upon by the
for the establishment and maintenance of joint readiness
activities, as agreed upon by the parties.
areas within the basic scope and purpose of this
agreement, as may be jointly agreed.
of activities within these fields of cooperation shall
be worked out by the parties in accordance with the
provisions of Article III below. The cooperation will
include, as appropriate, planning, preparations, and
Secretary of Defense and the Minister of Defence shall
establish a coordinating council to further the purpose
of this memorandum.
coordinate and provide guidance to joint working groups.
monitor the implementation of cooperation in the fields
agreed upon by the parties within the scope of this
hold periodic meetings, in Israel and the United States,
for the purposes of discussing and resolving outstanding
issues and to further the objectives set forth in this
memorandum. Special meetings can be held at the request
of either party. The Secretary of Defense and Minister
of Defence will chair these meetings whenever possible.
working groups will address the following issues:
cooperation between the parties, including joint
U.S.-Israel exercises in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
for the establishment of joint readiness activities
including access to maintenance facilities and other
infrastructure, consistent with the basic purposes of
in research and development, building on past
cooperation in this area.
in defence trade.
fields within the basic scope and purpose of this
agreement, such as questions of prepositioning, as
agreed by the coordinating council.
future agenda for the work of the joint working groups,
their composition and procedures for reporting to the
coordinating council shall be agreed upon by the
memorandum shall enter into force upon exchange of
notification that required procedures have been
completed by each party. If either party considers it
necessary to terminate this memorandum of understanding,
it may do so by notifying the other party six months in
advance of the effective date of termination.
in the memorandum shall be considered as derogating from
pervious agreements and understandings between the
parties share the understanding that nothing in this
memorandum is intended to or shall in any way prejudge
the rights and obligations which devolve or may devolve
upon either government under the charter of the United
Nations or under international law. The parties reaffirm
their faith in the purposes and principles of the
charter of the United Nations and their aspiration to
live in peace with all countries in the region.